ClimateX: Do LLMs Accurately Assess Human Expert Confidence in Climate Statements? (Papers Track)

Romain Lacombe (Stanford University); Kerrie Wu (Stanford University); Eddie Dilworth (Stanford University)

Paper PDF Poster File Recorded Talk NeurIPS 2023 Poster Cite
Natural Language Processing Public Policy


Evaluating the accuracy of outputs generated by Large Language Models (LLMs) is especially important in the climate science and policy domain. We introduce the Expert Confidence in Climate Statements (ClimateX) dataset, a novel, curated, expert-labeled dataset consisting of 8094 climate statements collected from the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports, labeled with their associated confidence levels. Using this dataset, we show that recent LLMs can classify human expert confidence in climate-related statements, especially in a few-shot learning setting, but with limited (up to 47%) accuracy. Overall, models exhibit consistent and significant over-confidence on low and medium confidence statements. We highlight implications of our results for climate communication, LLMs evaluation strategies, and the use of LLMs in information retrieval systems.

Recorded Talk (direct link)